Yellow Tin Wall
Asian Issues
Journal for Regional Asian Studies
ISSN 2217-8813
UDC 32(5)
Азијске свеске
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ROMANIA-CHINA RELATIONS: SHORT INVENTORY AND OUTLOOK

       Sarmiza Pencea

       

       Ana-Cristina Bâlgăr

 

Abstract

This paper looks at the Romanian-Chinese relations through time, from a triple perspective - historical, political and, most of all, economic. Against the background of the 17+1 platform and the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), it analyzes Romania-China bilateral trade, the Chinese investments and presence in the Romanian economy, as well as the impact of Romania’s affiliation to both the 17+1 platform, and the BRI. It sheds light on what was wrong and has hindered the proper functioning of these two Chinese initiatives so far, and it advances the authors’ view on what is needed to make them work better and deliver the promised and hoped-for win-win results.

 

Keywords: Tianxia, Tianxiaism, Zhao Tingyang, Yan Xuetong, Zhou Dynasty, Tributary State System, China – Centrism, Confucianism, Deng Xiaoping, Xi Jinping

 

 

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MUARA COAST SITES FOR BRUNEIAN WORLD WAR II HERITAGE: THE MUARA BEACH MEMORIAL, THE AMERICAN WRECK AND THE AUSTRALIAN WRECK

       Frank Dhont

 

Abstract

The area of Muara experienced intense fighting in World War II. This was the area from where the Japanese troops made their approach to Bandar Seri Begawan and also the area where the Australians fought their way ashore to liberate Brunei. As such the site of Muara Beach is now home to a yearly commemorative ceremony in Brunei and a war memorial erected on the beach itself. The sea off the Muara Coast holds important additional remnants testifying of World War II in Brunei. Two frequently visited diving wrecks originate from World War II and can be accessed by regular divers. These wrecks are called the ‘Australian Wreck’ and the ‘American Wreck’. Both have an interesting and particular history connected specifically to World War II in the area. The paper will discuss how all these sites now serve as reminders of Bruneian World War II heritage and make the Muara Coast area important for this heritage. The paper will argue that the preservation of the wrecks and the Muara Beach memorial is imperative as sites of Bruneian World War II heritage and memory but also for the potential they hold for visitors from Brunei as well as abroad.

 

Keywords: World War II, Japanese Occupation of Brunei, Memorials, Wrecks

 

 

HAS THE INTERNET FINANCE DECREASED THE PROFITABILITY OF COMMERCIAL BANKS? EVIDENCE FROM CHINA

       Zhongfei Chen

       

       Kexin Li

 

Abstract

In this paper it is discussed whether the Internet finance has decreased the profitability of commercial banks in China and how it has been decreased. Using the data of 200 commercial banks in China, during the period from 2011 to 2016, we figure out that Internet finance measured by P2P lending and the third-party payment has a negative impact regarding profitability of these banks. Additionally, as can be observed, the third-party payment has had a more significant negative impact on banks than P2P lending. A mechanism of the influence that Internet finance has on banks is offered in our results. Further, based on the robustness test, it’s indicated that city and rural commercial banks and non-listed banks are more easily affected by the Internet finance.

 

Keywords: Internet finance, P2P lending, the third-party payment, commercial banks

 

 

 

 

GEOPOLITICAL POSITION OF THE SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION WITHIN THE BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE

      Slobodan Popović

 

Abstract

This paper will analyze the geopolitical position of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) within the controversial, pretentious, and grandiose Chinese Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). The paper shall be made of three parts. The first part will tackle geopolitical
schools that exist amongst Chinese academia and policymakers. Our attention will be focused on the debate on the geopolitical thoughts which occurred after publishing China`s first military strategy in 2015. The second part of the paper will tackle the institutional development of the SCO. This Organization stems from the Shanghai Five mechanism which China initiated in 1996 and which was supported by Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, by Uzbekistan in 2001 and by India and Pakistan in 2017, respectively. By analyzing the institutional development of the SCO, readers will be able to understand how the SCO fits or, even, reinforce Chinese geopolitical ambitions. The third part of the paper will explain the role of the SCO in the Silk Road Economic Belt, that is, in the part of space that Mackinder defined as Heartland. At the same time, we cannot ignore the upcoming role of the SCO in Chinese maritime geopolitical ambitions, that is, in the space of Asia-Pacific and Indo-Pacific. Still, different historical backgrounds, individual interpretation of security interests, asymmetric levels of development amongst member states of the SCO are factors that produce political and economic mistrust within the SCO. Additionally, economic and trade globalization enhances two parallel trends. On one side, it enhances the flow of goods, people, services, and capital, and on the other side, it reinforces the vulnerability of borders and the flow of terrorists. Those challenges require pragmatic, flexible, and bold approaches which should be based on respecting the interests of the SCO member states and the guiding principles of the SCO.

 

Keywords: Belt and Road Initiative, New Security Concept, Shanghai Cooperation Organization,
Geopolitics, Asia-Pacific, Indo-Pacific

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TIANXIA AND CHINESE FOREIGN POLICY

       Gerd Kaminski

 

Abstract

Increasing power and self-confidence plus rising nationalism have been responsible for the development of the sino-centric Tianxia School. The vanguards of this school are Zhao Tingyang and Yan Xuetong. Tianxiaguan – Tianxiaism challenges the classical Western rules of international relations and peace – keeping by offering a Chinese pattern which is based on the experiences of Zhou Dynasty and the later tributary state system. This group of Chinese scholars believes that the Tianxia model would be more successful than the United Nations. After much attention during the start of the school and some commitments to the principles of Tianxia thinking during the first years of Xi Jinping’s administration the influence of the school seems to be fading and a return to Deng Xiaoping’s cautious foreign policy rather likely.

 

Keywords: Tianxia, Tianxiaism, Zhao Tingyang, Yan Xuetong, Zhou Dynasty, Tributary State System, China – Centrism, Confucianism, Deng Xiaoping, Xi Jinping

DEVELOPMENT AND FATE OF MUSLIM RADICALISM IN CHINA

        Giovanni Nicotera

 

Abstract

The economic growth and development delivered by the Chinese Communist Party to its people have not brought peace to Xinjiang. On the contrary. After decades of relative tranquility that had followed the founding of the People’s Republic, violent extremist attacks have been carried out by Uyghurs on and off not only in this northwestern region, but in several other provinces, regions and municipalities. For several reasons, the Uyghurs have felt left behind as they have seen their liberties and traditions threatened and trampled. In addition, an unstable Central and South Asian environment, together with the possibility of travelling, available to some of them in the past and the opportunity to learn on the Internet, all have contributed to the radicalization of this ethnic group. As a result, some of them have decided to resort to violence. Beijing could have revisited its overall policies against ethnic minorities to assess where they have failed, but it has chosen instead an alternative strategy based on control and on the use of force. This strategy appears to be successful in keeping in check violence and restoring peace in the restive region, but brings with it probably the end of an old culture.

 

Keywords: Xinjiang, Uyghur, OBOR, radicalism, minorities, artificial intelligence, administrative detention

 

 

STUDY ON THE EVALUATION OF CHINA’S ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION EFFECT: A Spatial Perspective Based on Industrial Green Development

       Wang Peng 

Abstract

On the basis of a comprehensive understanding of green growth and efficiency, this paper constructs the metrics of industrial green development in China and adopts the spatial Durbin model to analyze the panel data of provincial industrial sector during 1998 and 2012, aiming to test the effect of China’s environmental regulation empirically by taking the spatial influence of regional environmental regulation into account. It is found that: (1) no matter which spatial weight matrix, geographic adjacency, economic development level or geographical economic adjacency, is used, China’s environmental regulation is significantly effective to industrial green development as a whole. However, regional environmental regulation does not effectively promote the industrial green development of the region, but has a significant positive spillover effects on other regions. So, the effectiveness of China’s overall environmental regulation is mainly decided by the spatial spillover effects from other regions. (2) Industrial green development in the region may be transferred through pollution-intensive industries, thus has an adverse spatial impact on the industrial sectors of other areas. (3) Firm size, industrial capital intensity and industrial innovation help promote regional industrial green development, while ownership structure and external trade play an unfavorable role. What’s more, the promoting effect of foreign direct investment is not significant.

Keywords: Environmental Regulation, Green Total Factor Productivity, Industrial Green Development, Spatial Durbin Mode

INVESTMENT APPROVAL SYSTEM REFORM AND INVESTMENT GROWTH

        Xianbin Wang

Abstract

The relationship between administrative regulation and economic prosperity is an important issue of public economics. This paper exploits the 2004 China investment approval system reform as a quasi-natural experiment, and identifies the impact of investment approval control loosening on investment by Difference-in-differences method. Based on the data of China’s industrial enterprises in 2001-2007 years, we find that the relaxation of investment approval control significantly promotes the growth of fixed assets investment in corresponding industries. This effect has region and enterprise heterogeneity. The investment growth of higher productivity enterprises is faster, and the effect of reform is more significant in provinces with lower government efficiency. This study provides theoretical support and empirical evidence for orderly easing the government’s regulation of micro economic activities to promote economic development.

 

Keywords: Investment Approval System, Investment Growth, Reform, China

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